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Table. 1.

Table. 1.

Characteristics of included studies

Study name Patient Intervention Comparator Registration number Research period Patients age
GH
Sode-Carlsen et al. (2010)42) 46 GH Placebo N/A 1 year 16-50 years
Festen et al. (2007)41) 20 GH (Genotropin) SC 1 mg/m2/day untreated N/A 2 years 4-9 years
Bakker et al. (2015)35) 47 GH (Genotropin) 0.035 mg/kg/day untreated ISRCTN 49726762 / NTR 628 2 years 6 month-14 years
Kuppens et al. (2016 a)40) 27 GH (Genotropin) SC 0.67 mg/m2/day Placebo NTR1038 2 years 17.2 (1.8) years a
Myers et al. (2000)30) 54 GH (Nutropin) 1 mg/m2/day untreated N/A 2 years 4-16 years
HAQQ et al. (2003)32) 12 GH (Genotropin) SC 0.043 mg/kg•d Placebo SC N/A 1 year 4.5–14.5 years
Carrel et al. (1999)18) 54 GH (Nutropin) 1 mg/m2/day untreated N/A 1 year 4-16 years
Hoybye et al. (2004)29) 17 GH (Genotropin) 0.8 → 1.6 IU (0.26 → 0.53 mg) daily Placebo N/A 18 months 17-32 years
Hauffa et al. (1997)34) 17 GH SC 0.15 IU/kg/day untreated N/A 1 year 3-12 years
Hoybye et al. (2003 a)39) 17 GH (Genotropin) SC 0.8 → 1.6 IU (0.26 → 0.53 mg) daily Placebo N/A 18 months (Placebo-controlled period: 6 months, Open label GH period: 1 year) 17-37 years
Hoybye et al. (2003 b)31) 17 GH (Genotropin) SC 0.8 → 1.6 IU (0.26 → 0.53 mg) daily Placebo N/A 18 months (Placebo-controlled period: 6 months, Open label GH period: 1 year) 17-32 years
De Lind van Wijngaarden et al. (2010)43) 85 GH (Genotropin) SC 1.0 mg/m2/day untreated N/A 2 years 6 month-14 years
Carrel et al. (2004)38) 29 GH (Genotropin) 1 mg/m2/day untreated N/A 1 year 4-37 months
Lindgren et al. (1998)37) 29 GH (Genotropin) SC 0.1 IU/kg/day untreated N/A 1 year 3-12 years
Lindgren et al. (1999)36) 19 GH (Genotropin) SC 0.1 - 0.2 IU/kg/day untreated N/A 2 years 3.8-12.7 years
Festen et al. (2008)33) 91 GH (Genotropin) SC 1 mg/m2/day untreated N/A 2 years 3-12 years
Non-GH
Anticonvulsunt
Consoli et al. (2019)20) 62 Topiramate 50–200 mg/day Placebo NCT02810483 8 weeks 12-45 years
Cannabinoid receptor CB1 inverse agonist
Motaghedi et al. (2011)24) 10 Rimonobant 20 mg Placebo N/A 6 months 19.5 - 36.3 years
Glucagon‐like peptide 1 receptor agonist
Sze et al. (2011)23) 8 Exenatide (Byetta) SC 10 μg Placebo SC (normal saline) N/A 4 weeks 30.0 (2.8) years a
Oxytocin
Einfeld et al. (2014)27) 30 Intranasal oxytocin (11 participants: (13–15 years) 18 IU B.I.D, (16 years and over) 24 IU B.I.D 18 participants: (13–15 years) 32 IU B.I.D, (16 years and over) 40 IU B.I.D) Placebo ACTRN12609000982213 18 weeks 12-30 years
Kuppens et al. (2016 b)28) 25 Intranasal oxytocin (Syntocinon) twice daily (dose range: 24-48 IU/day) Placebo NTR4950 8 weeks 6-14 years
Damen et al. (2021)19) 26 Intranasal oxytocin (Syntocinon) twice daily (dose range: 16-40 IU/day) Placebo N/A 3 months 3-11 years
Selective methionine aminopeptidase 2 inhibitor
McCandless et al. (2017)21) 107 Beloranib 1.8 mg or 2.4 mg Placebo 0.45ml or 0.6ml NCT02179151 1 year (administer 26 weeks) 12–65 years
Serotonin releasing agents
Selikowitz et al. (1990)26) 15 Fenfluramine capsule >(5 to 7 years: 10 mg TID, 8 to 15 years: 10 mg → 20 mg TID, Over the age of 15: 20 mg TID → 40 mg TID) Placebo capsule (lactose) N/A 6 weeks 5.5-27 years
Somatostatin receptor agoinist
De Waele et al. (2008)25) 9 Octreotide (Sandostatin LAR) IM 30 mg Placebo IM (saline) NCT00175305 56 weeks 10.8–18.9 years
Unacylated ghrelin analog
Allas et al. (2018)22) 47 AZP-531 SC 3 or 4 mg Placebo N/A 2 weeks 18-40 years

ACTRN: Australian clinical trials registration number, AZP-531: unacylated ghrelin analog, BID: Bis In Die (=twice a day), GH: growth hormone, IM: intramuscular injection, ISRCTN: International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number, IU: International Unit, N/A: not available, NCT: National Clinical Trial (number), NTR: Netherlands Trial Register, SC: subcutaneous injection, TID: Ter In Die (=three times a day), a is indicated as Mean (Standard deviation)

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