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Table. 2.

Table. 2.

Concurrent use of drugs associated with hyponatremia during visits to the emergency department (N=2,127)

Hyponatremia group (N=155) N (%) Control group (N=1,972) N (%) Univariable logistic regression Multivariable logistic regression

OR 95% CI aOR 95% CI
Desmopressin 6(3.9) 14(0.7) 5.63 2.13 14.87 6.98 2.45 19.84
Opioids excl. tramadol 13(8.4) 49(2.5) 3.59 1.90 6.78 3.45 1.72 6.94
Thiazides 33(21.3) 195(9.9) 2.47 1.63 3.72 2.64 1.66 4.21
Tramadol 28(18.1) 191(9.7) 2.06 1.33 3.18
TCAs 7(4.5) 49(2.5) 1.86 0.83 4.17
ARBs 70(45.2) 666(33.8) 1.62 1.16 2.25
Telmisartan 12(7.7) 97(4.9) 1.62 0.87 3.03
Olmesartan 10(6.5) 99(5.0) 1.31 0.67 2.56
Losartan 18(11.6) 185(9.4) 1.27 0.76 2.12
Valsartan 10(6.5) 115(5.8) 1.11 0.57 2.17
Candesartan 4(2.6) 64(3.3) 0.79 0.28 2.20
NSAIDs 48(31.0) 431(21.9) 1.60 1.12 2.29
Aceclofenac 9(5.8) 87(4.4) 1.34 0.66 2.71
Celecoxib 11(7.1) 142(7.2) 0.99 0.52 1.86
PPIs 38(24.5) 338(17.1) 1.60 1.07 2.31
Lansoprazole 12(7.7) 70(3.6) 2.28 1.21 4.31
Pantoprazole 14(9.0) 115(5.8) 1.60 0.90 2.87
Other diuretics 17(11.0) 167(8.5) 1.33 0.79 2.26
Spironolactone 9(5.8) 50(2.5) 2.37 1.14 4.92
Furosemide 16(10.3) 126(6.4) 1.69 0.98 2.92
Amlodipine 48(31) 511(25.9) 1.28 0.90 1.83
Other antidepressants 9(5.8) 94(4.8) 1.23 0.61 2.49
ACEIs 4(2.6) 46(2.3) 1.11 0.39 3.12
SSRIs 9(5.8) 122(6.2) 0.94 0.47 1.88
Thiazides Combination
+ Opioids excl. tramadol 2(1.3) 2(0.1) 6.23 0.85 45.84 2.30 0.24 22.24
+ PPIs 14(9.0) 35(1.8) 3.37 1.54 7.36 4.08 1.74 9.55
+ Tramadol 10(6.5) 27(1.4) 2.71 1.16 6.31 1.89 0.72 4.94
+ NSAIDs 2(1.3) 62(3.1) 1.79 0.85 3.78 1.22 0.53 2.77

TCAs, tricyclic antidepressants; ARBs, Angiotensin receptor blockers; NSAIDs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; PPIs, proton pump inhibitors; ACEIs, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors; SSRIs, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Only selected variables were analyzed for aOR through stepwise method (sls=0.1, sle=0.05). Thiazides combination compares the group who takes only Thiazides except followed drug with the group who takes them together.

Korean J Clin Pharm 2022;32:67-73 https://doi.org/10.24304/kjcp.2022.32.2.67
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