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Table. 1.

Table. 1.

Baseline characteristics of study population

Male (n=7,398) Female (n=9,310) p-value
Handgrip strength (kg) 40.23 ± 0.13 23.35 ± 0.09 <0.001
Age (years) 45.80 ± 0.27 47.74 ± 0.29 <0.001
Smoking status <0.001
Current smoker 2560 (37.1%) 474 (5.9%)
Past smoker 3085 (37.2%) 553 (6.4%)
Non-smoker 1753 (25.7%) 8,283 (87.7%)
Alcohol consumption <0.001
Yes 6131 (85.8%) 6,085 (69.1%)
No 1267 (14.2%) 3,225 (30.9%)
Aerobic exercise <0.001
Yes 3,447 (50.0%) 3,802 (43.4%)
No 3,951 (50.0%) 5,508 (56.6%)
Comorbidities
Hypertension 1,927 (20.3%) 2,110 (18.1%) <0.001
Dyslipidemia 1,175 (13.6%) 1,854 (16.7%) <0.001
Type 2 diabetes 785 (7.8%) 793 (7.0%) 0.057
Bone diseases * 481 (4.6%) 2,339 (20.3%) <0.001
Household income <0.001
1st quartile 1,236 (13.4%) 1,851 (17.1%)
2nd quartile 1,769 (22.9%) 2,284 (24.2%)
3rd quartile 2,100 (30.7%) 2,528 (28.7%)
4th quartile 2,293 (33.0%) 2,647 (30.1%)

Note: Data are presented as mean±standard error for continuous variables or number (weighted percentage %) for categorical variables.

*Bone diseases include osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and osteoporosis.

Korean J Clin Pharm 2021;31:231-6 https://doi.org/10.24304/kjcp.2021.31.3.231
© 2021 Korean J Clin Pharm