pISSN 1226-6051
eISSN 2508-786X

Table. 2.

Table. 2.

Predictive factors for declined cognitive function in Korean adults 45 years and over

Unadjusted OR (95% CI)Full modelaStepwise selection modelb
Age45-54RefRefRef
55-642.28 (1.79-2.92)***1.58 (1.21-2.06)***1.61 (1.24-2.10)***
≥656.04 (4.83-7.55)***3.31 (2.52-4.36)***3.60 (2.77-4.67)***

GenderMaleRefRefRef
Female1.64 (1.41-1.91)***1.10 (0.86-1.41)1.22 (1.02-1.45)*

Weight changesDecrease >10%1.72 (1.35-2.19)**1.48 (1.14-1.93)**1.44 (1.11-1.88)**
Decrease 5% to 10%1.16 (0.93-1.46)0.99 (0.78-1.26)0.99 (0.78-1.26)
StableRefRefRef
Increase 5% to 10%1.17 (0.91-1.50)1.16 (0.88-1.52)1.18 (0.90-1.55)
Increase >10%1.65 (1.27-2.13)*1.42 (1.06-1.91)*1.47 (1.11-1.95)**

Baseline BMI (kg/m)Underweight1.41 (0.95-2.10)0.95 (0.62-1.45)-
NormalRefRef
Overweight0.78 (0.65-0.93)**0.83 (0.68-1.00)
obese0.87 (0.72-1.06)0.86 (0.70-1.07)

Household income quintile1st (lowest)1.23 (0.99-1.53)0.96 (0.74-1.23)-
2nd1.52 (1.23-1.88)***1.10 (0.87-1.40)
3rdRefRef
4th0.60 (0.47-0.77)***0.97 (0.74-1.28)
5th (highest)0.34 (0.26-0.46)***0.84 (0.61-1.16)

EducationElementary6.06 (4.14-8.89)***3.22 (2.10-4.92)***3.36 (2.22-5.08)***
Middle school2.38 (1.56-3.61)***1.88 (1.21-2.94)**1.93 (1.25-2.99)**
High school1.64 (1.08-2.47)***1.62 (1.05-2.49)*1.63 (1.06-2.50)*
College or higherRefRefRef

MaritalMarriedRefRef-
Separated2.15 (1.80-2.57)*1.21 (0.98-1.49)
Never married1.07 (0.36-3.17)1.08 (0.33-3.49)

Health InsuranceNational health insuranceRefRef-
Medicaid1.33 (0.99-1.79)0.87 (0.63-1.21)

RegionUrbanRefRefRef
Rural1.41 (1.21-1.64)***1.27 (1.08-1.51)**1.27 (1.07-1.50)**

Smoking statusNever smokerRefRef-
Past smoker0.86 (0.66-1.06)0.96 (0.71-1.30)
Current smoker0.60 (0.49-0.73)***0.84 (0.65-1.10)

Alcohol drinking statusNever drinkerRefRef-
Past drinker0.59 (0.51-0.70)***1.03 (0.84-1.26)
Current drinker1.12 (0.85-1.49)1.18 (0.84-1.65)

Psychiatric diseaseYes2.43 (1.45-4.08)***1.25 (0.70-2.22)-
NoRefRef

Activities of daily living0 (normal)RefRef-
1 +2.15 (1.32-3.51)**1.16 (0.67-2.00)

DepressionYes2.27 (1.95-2.65)***1.48 (1.24-1.76)***1.52 (1.28-1.81)***
NoRefRefRef

HypertensionYes1.59 (1.36-1.87)***1.02 (0.85-1.23)-
NoRefRef

Diabetes MellitusYes1.63 (1.32-2.01)***1.33 (1.05-1.68)*1.32 (1.06-1.66)*
NoRefRefRef

Heart diseaseYes1.50 (1.11-2.02)**0.99 (0.71-1.37)-
NoRefRef

Cerebral diseaseYes3.10 (2.09-4.61)***1.99 (1.28-3.09)**2.08 (1.35-3.20)***
NoRefRefRef

Physical activityYesRefRefRef
No1.53 (1.31-1.79)***1.29 (1.08-1.55)**1.29 (1.08-1.54)**

Baseline K-MMSEMild cognitive impairments1.15 (0.95-1.40)0.41 (0.32-0.51)***0.41 (0.33-0.51)***
NormalRefRefRef

Employment statusEmployedRefRefRef
Unemployed2.72 (2.32-3.18)***1.55 (1.26-1.92)***1.61 (1.34-1.95)***

p< 0.05.

p<0.01.

p<0.001.

Adjusted for all covariates presented in Table 2.

Stepwise selection, a method of fitting regression models in which the choice of predictive variables is carried out by an automatic procedure by SAS program.

BMI, body mass index; CI, confidence interval; K-MMSE, the Korean version of the Mini-mental state examination; OR, odds ratio; Ref, reference.

Korean J Clin Pharm 2019;29:238-46 https://doi.org/10.24304/kjcp.2019.29.4.238
© 2019 Korean J Clin Pharm